If the historic documents, comments written by eyewitnesses and declarations by the most authoritative ARAB scholars which are quoted in the text below of this lengthy blog post, are still not enough to convince the skeptical of the short history of any people called "Palestinians", if scientific facts by means of DNA evidence are not enough, let us turn to the most important source for muslim Arabs:
"And thereafter We [Allah] said to the Children of Israel: 'Dwell securely in the Promised Land. And when the last warning will come to pass, we will gather you together in a mingled crowd'.".
- Qur'an 17:104 -
YES, even Muhammad recognized the Jewish "PROMISED LAND".
LET US ADDRESS HISTORICAL FACTS BEFORE THE LENGTHY AND VERY TAXING DNA EVIDENCE.
IF HISTORY MEANS NOTHING TO YOU, FEEL FREE TO SKIP DOWN TO THE DNA RESULTS, WHICH ARE CLEARLY MARKED 'DNA EVIDENCE'
'DNA DOES NOT LIE' BELOW.
The Islamic claim to the Temple Mount is very recent - Jerusalem's role as "The Third Holiest Site in Islam" in mainstream Islamic writings does NOT precede the 1930s.
It was created by the grand mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini (1897-1974).
He misinterpreted what Muhammad had written in the Qur'an, and obviously was no student of the history of this mosque.
He obviously did not know that it did not exist while Muhammad was ALIVE.
Throughout World War II, al-Husseini worked for the Axis Powers as a broadcaster in propaganda targeting Arab public opinion.
The Mufti was paid "an absolute fortune" of 50,000 marks a month (when a German field marshal was making 25,000 marks a year).
Although al-Husseini had been removed from the Supreme Muslim Council and other administrative roles by the British government in 1937, they did not remove him the post of mufti of Jerusalem.
The Palestinian historian Mattar blames him as the main culprit of sowing the seeds of the Arab-Israeli conflict.
The Mufti knew that nationalist slogans alone would not succeed in uniting the masses against arriving Jewish refugees. He therefore turned the struggle into a religious conflict.
He addressed the masses clearly, calling for a holy war.
His battle cry was simple and comprehensive: "Down with the Infidels!"
From the time Herbert Samuel appointed him to the position of Mufti, Haj Amin worked vigorously to raise Jerusalem's status as an Islamic holy center.
He renovated the mosques on the Temple Mount, while conducting an unceasing campaign regarding the imminent Jewish "threat" to Muslim holy sites.
When this Qur'anic passage [Qur'an 17:104] was first revealed, in about 621 CE, a place called the Sacred Mosque already existed in Mecca.
ONLY IN MECCA.
In contrast, the "furthest mosque" was a turn of phrase, not a place.
Some early Muslims understood it as metaphorical or as a place in heaven.
And if the "furthest mosque" did exist on earth, Palestine would seem an unlikely location, for many reasons.
Some of them:
~Elsewhere in the Qur'an (30:1), Palestine is called "the closest land" (adna al-ard).
CLOSEST, NOT FURTHEST!
~'Palestine' had not yet been conquered by the Muslims and contained not a single mosque.
~The "furthest mosque" was apparently identified with places INSIDE Arabia: either Medina or a town called Ji'rana, about ten miles from Mecca, which the Prophet visited in 630.
~The Qur'anic inscriptions that make up a 240-meter mosaic frieze inside the Dome of the Rock do NOT include Qur'an 17:1 and the story of the Night Journey, suggesting that as late as 692 the idea of Jerusalem as the lift-off for the Night Journey had not yet been established. (Indeed, the first extant inscriptions of Qur'an 17:1 referring to Jerusalem date from the eleventh century.)
~Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiya (638-700), a close relative of the Prophet Muhammad, is quoted denigrating the notion that the prophet ever set foot on the Rock in Jerusalem; "these damned Syrians," by which he means the Umayyads, "pretend that God put His foot on the Rock in Jerusalem, though [only] one person ever put his foot on the rock, namely Abraham."
DOES IT MATTER THAT A MUSLIM MAN SAID THAT?
The 3 photos below were taken in/about 1875. They were used to raise funds for repair of the mosque that sits on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
OTTOMAN TURKS WERE STILL IN COMPLETE CONTROL OF JERUSALEM AT THIS TIME.
DID THEY NOT WORSHIP AT THIS MOSQUE?
IT APPEARS NO ONE DID!
IT LOOKS ABANDONED!
GRASS IS GROWING BETWEEN THE STONES. TILES HAVE FALLEN OFF AND LIE ON THE GROUND.
THE INTERIOR IS IN UTTER RUIN!
FEW WILL UNDERSTAND WHAT SHOWING THE BUTTOCKS AND SOLES OF THE FEET TO ANYTHING "HOLY" ACTUALLY MEANS...
ALSO INTERESTING, I FOUND THIS:
Numerous Shia and Sufi shrines were once located in Saudi Arabia, but were destroyed in the 1930s by Saudi Arabia's Wahhabis who believe that only Mecca and Medina are holy places in Islam.
THE SUFI DID NOT RECOGNIZE JERUSALEM AS HOLY EITHER, DID THEY?
"ONLY MECCA AND MEDINA"....NOT JERUSALEM?
A VIDEO OF MUSLIM CHILDREN PLAYING SOCCER AT THE DOME OF THE ROCK/'HOLY' AL AQSA MOSQUE IN JERUSALEM.
DO THEY DO THIS AT MECCA, OR MEDINA?
CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW AS IT COULD NOT BE UPLOADED HERE.
MORE PHOTOS OF THESE GAMES HERE, AND THE SAME VIDEO AS ABOVE.
DO THEY ALLOW AND FEED FERAL CATS AT THOSE OTHER HOLY SITES?
[SEE http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-qhgwpkOVPLc/UkxSsky7h_I/AAAAAAAABPI/2fLLH4ltcHs/s1600/DSC00731.JPG ]
THERE WERE NO MOSQUES IN JERUSALEM DURING MUHAMMAD'S TIME.
"There were NO mosques in Jerusalem in 632 c.e. at the death of Muhammad... Jerusalem was [then] a Christian-occupied city." ~ Written by Dr. Manfred R. Lehmann, writer for the Algemeiner Journal. Excerpts of the article originally published in the Algemeiner Journal, August 19, 1994.
SO, HOW COULD HE HAVE TRAVELED TO A PLACE THAT DID NOT EXIST?
In the days of Muhammad, who died in 632 of the Common Era, Jerusalem was a Christian-occupied city within the Byzantine Empire.
Jerusalem was captured by caliph Omar only in 638 c.e., six years AFTER Muhammad's death.
Throughout all this time there were only churches in Jerusalem, and a church stood on the Temple Mount, called the Church of Saint Mary of Justinian, built in the Byzantine architectural style.
The Aqsa mosque was built 20 years AFTER the Dome of the Rock, which was built in 691-692 by caliph Abd el-Malik...AFTER THE PROPHET WAS HISTORY!
The name "Omar mosque" is therefore false.
In or around 711, about 80 years after Muhammad died, Malik's son, Abd el-Wahd who ruled in 705-715 reconstructed the Christian-Byzantine Church of St. Mary and converted it into a mosque.
He left the structure as it was, a typical Byzantine "basilica" structure with a row of pillars on either side of the rectangular "ship" in the centre.
All he added was an onion-like dome on top of the building to make it look like a mosque. He then named it El-Aqsa.
Don't these facts make it crystal clear that Muhammad could never have had ANY Jerusalem mosque in mind with mention of the "furthest mosque", since it did not exist for another three generations after his death?
TRY TRUTH, FOLKS...IT'S ALL THAT MATTERS.
Rather, as many scholars long ago established, it is logical that Muhammad intended the mosque in Mecca as the "sacred mosque", and the mosque in Medina as the "furthest mosque".
The 13th century ARAB biographer Yakut noted: «Mecca is holy to Muslims; Jerusalem is holy to the Jews».
AGAIN, DOESN'T WHAT AN ARAB SAYS COUNT FOR ANYTHING?
THERE IS SOMETHING ELSE IN FACTUAL HISTORY THAT IS VERY IMPORTANT...
The Second Temple was rebuilt by order of Koresh (Cyrus), the King of Persia, who also paid for its reconstruction and ordered the return of the Jews exiled in Babylon.
The Second Temple was COMPLETE ALMOST 1,200 YEARS BEFORE THE "DOME OF THE ROCK", WHICH WAS NOT BUILT UNTIL 691 CE...59 YEARS AFTER MUHAMMAD DIED.
THE SECOND TEMPLE was ready for consecration in the spring of 516 BCE, just twenty years after the return from captivity.
The Temple was completed on the third day of the month Adar, in the sixth year of the reign of King Darius.
HOW IRONIC THAT THE ANCIENT PERSIAN KINGS WERE SO BENEVOLENT TO THE JEWS, GIVEN THAT PRESENT DAY 'PERSIAN' (PRESENT DAY IRANIAN) LEADERS WANT TO 'KILL EVERY JEW'.
WHAT CHANGED THEM SO IN 2,000 YEARS?
The Arabic name for Jerusalem is "Al-QuDS" (The Holy), which is abbreviation for another Arabic name used for Jerusalem until the last century, "Bayt al-MaQDeS" (The Holy House), since the 10th century c.e.
The name "Bayt al-MaQDeS" is a translation of the Hebrew "Beyt ha-MiKDaSH", which means "House of Holiness", "Temple".
But Islam has no Temple, only the Jews did.
Thus the Arabic name for Jerusalem makes no reference to Muhammad's alleged trip to Heaven, but rather refers to the Jewish Temple!
An historical survey shows that the stature of the city of JERUSALEM, and the emotions surrounding it, inevitably rises for Muslims ONLY when Jerusalem has political significance.
Conversely, when the utility of Jerusalem expires, so does its status and the passions about it.
This pattern first emerged during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad in the early seventh century.
Since then, it has been repeated on five occasions: in the late seventh century, in the twelfth-century Counter-crusade, in the thirteenth-century Crusades, during the era of British rule (1917-48), and since Israel took the city in 1967.
THE NEWEST RACE ON EARTH
FROM THE MOUTHS OF ARABS, THOUGHTS ON THE WORD 'PALESTINIAN'...
Palestinians are the newest of all the peoples on the face of the Earth, and began to exist in a single day by a kind of supernatural phenomenon that is unique in the whole history of mankind, as it is witnessed by Walid Shoebat, a former PLO terrorist that acknowledged the lie he was fighting for and the truth he was fighting against:
“Why is it that on June 4th 1967 I was a Jordanian and overnight I became a Palestinian?”
“We did not particularly mind Jordanian rule. The teaching of the destruction of Israel was a definite part of the curriculum, but we considered ourselves Jordanian until the Jews returned to Jerusalem.
Then all of the sudden we were Palestinians - they removed the star from the Jordanian flag and all at once we had a Palestinian flag”.
“When I finally realized the lies and myths I was taught, it is my duty as a righteous person to speak out”.
Auni Bey Abdul-Hadi, Syrian Arab leader to British Peel Commission, 1937,
“There is no such country as Palestine.
‘Palestine’ is a term the Zionists invented.
There is no Palestine in the Bible.
Our country was for centuries part of Syria.
‘Palestine’ is alien to us.
It is the Zionists who introduced it”.
Professor Philip Hitti, Arab historian, 1946,
“There is no such thing as Palestine in history, absolutely not”.
Representative of Saudi Arabia at the United Nations, 1956,
“It is common knowledge that Palestine is nothing but Southern Syria”.
Concerning the 'Holy Land', the chairman of the Syrian Delegation at the Paris Peace Conference in February 1919 stated:
“The only Arab domination since the Conquest in 635 AD hardly lasted, as such, 22 years.”
Zuhair Muhsin, military commander of the PLO and member of the PLO Executive Council,
“There are no differences between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese.
We are all part of one nation. It is only for political reasons that we carefully underline our Palestinian identity… yes, the existence of a separate Palestinian identity serves only tactical purposes.
The founding of a Palestinian state is a new tool in the continuing battle against Israel”.
Syrian dictator Hafez Assad to the PLO leader Yasser Arafat,
“Never forget this one point:
There is no such thing as a Palestinian people, there is no Palestinian entity, there is only Syria.
You are an integral part of the Syrian people, Palestine is an integral part of Syria. Therefore it is we, the Syrian authorities, who are the true representatives of the Palestinian people”.
ASSAD SHOULD KNOW, JUST AS THE EGYPTIAN ARAFAT KNEW.
Walid Shoebat, former Muslim Brotherhood member, has stated,
“As I lived in Palestine, everyone I knew could trace their heritage back to the original country their great grandparents came from.
Everyone knew their origin was not from the Canaanites, but ironically, this is the kind of stuff our education in the Middle East included.
The fact is that today’s Palestinians are immigrants from the surrounding nations!
I grew up well knowing the history and origins of today’s Palestinians as being from Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Christians from Greece, Muslim Sherkas from Russia, Muslims from Bosnia, and the Jordanians next door.
My grandfather, who was a dignitary in Bethlehem, almost lost his life by Abdul Qader Al-Husseni (the leader of the Palestinian revolution) after being accused of selling land to Jews.
He used to tell us that his village Beit Sahur (The Shepherds Fields) in Bethlehem County was empty before his father settled in the area with six other families.
The town has now grown to 30,000 inhabitants”.
THERE IS A BIG DIFFERENCE IN THE HISTORIES OF JEWS AND "PALESTINIANS"
Israel became a nation in 1312 BCE, two thousand years before the rise of Islam.
ISRAEL WAS CONQUEROR LONG BEFORE THE PROPHET WAS BORN, LONG BEFORE ISLAM EXISTED!
Arab refugees in Israel began identifying themselves as part of a Palestinian people in 1967, two decades after the establishment of the modern State of Israel.
For over 3,300 years, Jerusalem has been the Jewish capital, AND WAS MENTIONED AS SUCH IN HISTORIES OF OTHER NATIONS!
Jerusalem has never been the capital of any Arab or Muslim entity.
Even when the Jordanians occupied Jerusalem, they never sought to make it their capital, and Arab leaders did not come to visit.
Jews pray facing Jerusalem. Muslims pray with their backs toward Jerusalem.
"PALESTINIANS" UNWELCOME IN ARAB/MUSLIM NATIONS.
Arab "PALESTINIAN" refugees were intentionally NOT absorbed or integrated into the Arab lands to which they fled, despite the vast Arab territory.
Out of the 100,000,000 refugees FROM ALL NATIONS OF EARTH since World War II, theirs is the ONLY refugee group in the world that has NEVER been absorbed or integrated into their OWN people's lands.
THOSE WHO CALL THEMSELVES BY THE NEW NAME..."PALESTINIANS".
NO ONE WILL LET THEM IN EXCEPT ON SHORT-TERM VISAS.
WHY IS THAT?
JORDAN WAS SUPPOSED TO BE THEIR COUNTRY...JORDAN KICKED THEM OUT.
Jewish refugees were completely absorbed into Israel, a country no larger than the state of New Jersey.
If you consider Palestine to be a "Sovereign" and "Independent" country that goes back through most of recorded history as many would have you to believe, then a few questions need to be answered THAT NO "PALESTINIAN" CAN ANSWER:
AS TO "ANCIENT PALESTINE":
When was it founded and by whom?
What were its borders?
What was its capital?
Who was the King/Ruler IN ANCIENT TIMES?
What was its form of government?
What were its major cities?
What constituted the basis of its economy?
Who was the Palestinian leader BEFORE the Egyptian Yasser Arafat?
Was Palestine ever recognized by a country whose existence, at that time or now, leaves no room for interpretation?
What was the language of the country of Palestine?
What was the prevalent religion of the country of Palestine?
What was the name of its currency and what was the approximate exchange rate of the Palestinian monetary unit ?
And, finally, since there is no such country today, what caused its demise and when did it occur?
Why did NO Arab nation ever try to become an independent and sovereign nation inside the borders of what is now Israel until Arabs suffered their devastating defeat in the Six Day War in 1967?
In all those years, when Jordan occupied Judea and Samaria and Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip, neither of them created a “Palestinian” state, since the still non-existing Palestinians would have never claimed their alleged right to have their own state.
The Palestinian people are culturally and linguistically Arabic.
[NOTE: Bedouin people may take offense to that, and my apologies if you do, for I understand the purity of your culture, I do, and I realize that the Bedouin TRULY define the word "Arab".
That the Bedouin have stood strong through the tests of time and regional conquest is commendable.
The atrocities committed against you have been deplorable, but yet you stand.
I, in no way, attribute the modern-day "Palestinians" to having any ancestral link to your Tribes.
Your warriors, across time, have few equals.
The Bedouin have my admiration, respect, and gratitude, as one of your own (a man of the Banu Hammed, by his dedication to hamasa, sharaf and diyafa) absolutely saved my life and 23 others in a crisis situation over 45 years ago.
May you know only peace.]
DNA DOES NOT LIE
LET US USE GENETICS, THE HUMAN DNA, WHICH CANNOT BE DENIED.
A study of high-resolution haplotypes HAS demonstrated that a substantial portion of Y chromosomes of Israeli Jews (70%) and of Palestinian Muslim Arabs (82%) belonged to the same chromosome pool.
BOTH ARE INDEED, AFTER ALL THAT HAS BEEN GENETICALLY UNRAVELED, AS BOTH HAVE always CLAIMED, SONS OF ABRAHAM.
[NOTE: While some of the Bedouin claim Y'shma'el (Ishmael) as "father", others claim Qahtan, aka, Joktan. Whom they claim and why is their affair and none of ours.]
"Palestinian" was used to refer to the nationalist concept of a Palestinian people by the Arabs of Palestine in a limited way until World War.
New York University Medical Center And School Of Medicine
May 9, 2000
Genetic analysis suggests that a majority of the Muslims of Palestine, inclusive of Arab citizens of Israel, are descendants of Christians, Jews and other earlier inhabitants of the southern Levant whose core may reach back to prehistoric times.
A study of high-resolution haplotypes demonstrated that a substantial portion of Y chromosomes of Israeli Jews (70%) and of Palestinian Muslim Arabs (82%) belonged to the same chromosome pool.
[ SEE: Gibbons, Ann (October 30, 2000). "Jews and Arabs Share Recent Ancestry". ScienceNOW. American Academy for the Advancement of Science.. Studies cited are: M. F. Hammer et al. (2000). "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (12): 6769–6774. doi:10.1073/pnas.100115997. PMC 18733. PMID 10801975. and Almut Nebel et al. (2000). "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews". Human Genetics 107 (6): 630–641. doi:10.1007/s004390000426. PMID 11153918. Another study says; "Our recent study of high-resolution microsatellite haplotypes demonstrated that a substantial portion of Y chromosomes of Jews (70%) and of Palestinian Muslim Arabs (82%) belonged to the same chromosome pool".]
The prevailing view is that Palestinian identity originated in the early decades of the 20th century.
[SEE: Law and identity in mandate Palestine. The University of North Carolina Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-8078-3017-8.]
Like the Lebanese, Syrians, Egyptians, Maghrebis, and other people today commonly called Arabs, the Palestinians are an Arab people in linguistic and cultural affiliation.
Genetic research studies suggests that some of the present-day so-called 'Palestinians' have roots that go back to before the 7th century CE...BUT NOT TO ANY NATION KNOWN AS "PALESTINE".
Ali Qleibo, a Palestinian anthropologist, explains:
"Throughout history a great diversity of peoples has moved into the region and made Palestine their homeland: Canaanites, Jebusites, Philistines from Crete, Anatolian and Lydian Greeks, Hebrews, Amorites, Edomites, Nabataeans, Arameans, Romans, Arabs, and Western European Crusaders, to name a few.
Each of them appropriated different regions that overlapped in time and competed for sovereignty and land.
Others, such as Ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Persians, Babylonians, and the Mongol raids of the late 1200s, were historical 'events' whose successive occupations were as ravaging as the effects of major earthquakes ...
Like shooting stars, the various cultures shine for a brief moment before they fade out of official historical and cultural records. The people, however, survive—albeit modernity camouflaged under the veneer of Islam and Arabic culture."
[ SEE: Dr. Ali Qleibo (28 July 2007). "Palestinian Cave Dwellers and Holy Shrines: The Passing of Traditional Society". This Week in Palestine. Retrieved 2007-08-17.]
One DNA study by Nebel found genetic evidence in support of historical records that "part, or perhaps the majority" of Muslim Palestinians descend from "local inhabitants, mainly Christians and Jews, who had converted after the Islamic conquest in the seventh century AD/CE".
[SEE: Nebel et al., High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews. Human Genetics Vol. 107, No. 6,]
"A sample of 526 Y chromosomes representing six Middle Eastern populations (Ashkenazi, Sephardic, and Kurdish Jews from Israel; Muslim Kurds; Muslim Arabs from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area; and Bedouin from the Negev) was analyzed for 13 binary polymorphisms and six microsatellite loci.
The investigation of the genetic relationship among three Jewish communities revealed that Kurdish and Sephardic Jews were indistinguishable from one another, whereas both differed slightly, yet significantly, from Ashkenazi Jews.
The differences among Ashkenazim may be a result of low-level gene flow from European populations and/or genetic drift during isolation.
Admixture between Kurdish Jews and their former Muslim host population in Kurdistan appeared to be negligible.
In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors.
The two haplogroups Eu 9 and Eu 10 constitute a major part of the Y chromosome pool in the analyzed sample.
Our data suggest that Eu 9 originated in the northern part, and Eu 10 in the southern part of the Fertile Crescent... Palestinian Arabs and Bedouin differed from the other Middle Eastern populations studied here, mainly in specific high-frequency Eu 10 haplotypes not found in the non-Arab groups. These chromosomes might have been introduced through migrations from the Arabian Peninsula during the last two millennia..."
In a genetic study of Y-chromosomal STRs in two populations from Israel and the Palestinian Authority Area: Christian and Muslim Palestinians showed genetic differences. The majority of Palestinian Christians (31.82%) were a subclade of E1b1b, followed by G2a (11.36%), and J1 (9.09%). The majority of Palestinian Muslims were haplogroup J1 (37.82%) followed by E1b1b (19.33%), and T (5.88%).
In a 2003 genetic study, Bedouins showed the highest rates (62.5%) of the subclade Haplogroup J-M267 among all populations tested, followed by Palestinian Arabs (38.4%), Iraqis (28.2%), Ashkenazi Jews (14.6%) and Sephardic Jews (11.9%), according to Semino et al.
Semitic populations, including Jews, usually possess an excess of J1 Y chromosomes compared to other populations harboring Y-haplogroup J.
[SEE: Semino et al. (2004). Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J (PDF) 74. American Journal of Human Genetics. pp. 1023–1034.]
[ALSO: Rita Gonçalves et al. (July 2005). "Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry". Annals of Human Genetics 69 (4): 443–54. ]
[ALSO: E. Levy- Coffman (2005). A Mosaic of People. Journal of Genetic Genealogy. pp. 12–33. "J1 is the only haplogroup that researchers consider "Semitic" in origin"]
[ALSO: Cinnioglu et al. (29 October 2003). "Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia" (PDF). Human Genetics (Human Genetics) 114 (2): 127–148. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-1031-4. PMID 14586639.]
[ALSO: "DNA Haplogroup Definitions – J". Rootsweb.com. Retrieved 2009-04-22.]
According to a 2011 study by Balanovsky et al., Haplogroup J-M267 is actually most populous in the Northeastern Caucasus region of Dagestan with the highest frequency in Kubachi (99%), followed by Kaitak (85%), and Dargins (69%).
[SOURCE: Oleg Balanovsky; Khadizhat Dibirova; Anna Dybo; Oleg Mudrak; Svetlana Frolova; Elvira Pocheshkhova; Marc Haber; Theodore Schurr; Wolfgang Haak; Marina Kuznetsova; Magomed Radzhabov; Olga Balaganskaya; Alexey Romanov; Tatiana Zakharova; Pierre Zalloua; Sergey Koshel; Merritt Ruhlen; Colin Renfrew; R. Spencer Wells; Chris Tyler-Smith; Elena Balanovska; The Genographic Consortium (27 August 2011). "Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region". Instituto de Ciências Biológicas]
The haplogroup J1, the ancestor of subclade M267, originates SOUTH of the Levant and was first disseminated from there into Ethiopia and Europe in Neolithic times.
In Jewish populations, J1 has a rate of around 15%, with haplogroup J2 (M172) (of eight sub-Haplogroups) being almost twice as common as J1 among Jews (<29%). J1 is most common in the southern Levant, as well as Syria, Iraq, Algeria, and Arabia, and drops sharply at the border of non-semitic areas like Turkey and Iran.
A second diffusion of the J1 marker took place in the 7th century CE when Arabians brought it from Arabia to North Africa.
According to a 2010 study by Behar et al. titled "The genome-wide structure of the Jewish people", some Palestinians tested clustered genetically close to Bedouins, Jordanians and Saudi Arabians which could indicate a common ancestry or some RECENT ancestral influx from the Arabian Peninsula.
A study found that the Palestinians, like Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, Turks, and Kurds have what appears to be Female-Mediated gene flow in the form of Maternal DNA Haplogroups from Sub-Saharan Africa.
Of the 117 Palestinian individuals tested, 15 carried maternal haplogroups that originated in Sub-Saharan Africa.
These results are consistent with female migration from eastern Africa into Near Eastern communities within the last few thousand years. There have been many opportunities for such migrations during this period.
According to a 2002 study by Nebel et al. titled "Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes", the highest frequency of Eu10 (i.e. J1) (30%–62.5%) has been observed so far in various Muslim Arab populations in the Middle East.
[SEE: Almut Nebel et al., "Genetic Evidence for the Expansion of Arabian Tribes into the Southern Levant and North Africa", Am J Hum Genet, June 2002; 70(6): 1594–1596]
The term "Arab", as well as the presence of Arabs IN THE SYRIAN DESERT and the Fertile Crescent, is first seen in the Assyrian sources from the 9th century BCE (SEE: Eph'al 1984).
A 2013 study of Haber, et al, examining the genetic structure of pre-Islamic Levant, found that "it was more genetically similar to Europeans than to Middle Easterners."
Much of the local Palestinian population in Nablus is believed to be descended from Samaritans who converted to Islam.
[SEE: Sean Ireton (2003). "The Samaritans – A Jewish Sect in Israel: Strategies for Survival of an Ethno-religious Minority in the Twenty First Century"]
Even today, certain Nabulsi surnames including Muslimani, Yaish, and Shakshir among others, are associated with a Samaritan origin.
EVEN THE LANGUAGE BELONGS TO OTHER MORE ANCIENT CULTURES.
THERE IS NO SEPARATE "PALESTINIAN" LANGUAGE.
IT NEVER EXISTED.
No such name as Palestine occurs in any ancient document.
Why does every historic document mention the Jews as the native and aboriginal inhabitants, and the Greeks, Romans and others as foreigners dwelling in Judea; but no “Palestinian” people, neither as native or as foreigner?
What is more, there is no reference to any “Palestinian” people in the Qur'an.
NO "PALESTINIANS" IN THE ENTIRE QUR'AN!
Saladin (1138 – 1193 CE/AD), a Kurd, knew the Jews and invited them to RESETTLE in Jerusalem.
He had no trouble in recognizing Jerusalem as their eternal capital city and the territory as their rightful Homeland.
But he did not know any so-called Palestinians and to claim otherwise that Palestinians are the original people of what is now Israel is not only counter to secular history but also is opposed to Islamic history.
Joseph Farah, an Arabic-American of Syrian and Lebanese ancestry wrote:
“There has never been a land known as Palestine governed by Palestinians.
Palestinians are Arabs, indistinguishable from Jordanians (another recent invention), Syrians, Iraqis, etc.
Keep in mind that the Arabs control 99.9 per cent of the Middle East lands.
Israel represents one-tenth of one per cent of the landmass.
But that’s too much for the Arabs. They want it all. And that is ultimately what the fighting in Israel is about today… No matter how many land concessions the Israelis make, it will never be enough.” (Joseph Farah, “Myths of the Middle East”)
You will search in vain for Palestinian Arab coinage or Palestinian Arab archaeological artIfacts specifically related to any Palestinian Arab king or ancient leader.
But what you will find are coins, pottery, ancient scrolls, all providing conclusive, empirical and millennial evidence of Jewish civilization dotting the land known correctly as Israel – not Palestine.
Yasser Arafat, the arch-terrorist, who imposed himself undemocratically upon the Arabs who call themselves Palestinians, was fond of repeating the absurd myth that Palestinian Arabs were descended from the Canaanites and the Philistines.
ARAFAT WAS OF EGYPTIAN LINEAGE, BORN IN CAIRO, HIS FATHER WAS STILL MAINTAINING A HOME AND A SHOP THERE WHEN HE DIED.
IF ONE LOOKS AT ARAFATS'S BIRTH RECORD ONE FINDS ... His real name is Abdel-Rahman Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini, born in August 1929. His father's occupation was given as "Egyptian textile merchant".
Arafat never mentioned his father, and did not attend his father's funeral in 1952.
He was sent to Jerusalem briefly as a small child after his mother died, but then returned to Egypt via Gaza.
Throughout his career, Arafat’s Egyptian background was a political impediment and source of personal embarrassment.
‘West Bankers did not like his Egyptian accent and ways and found them alien,’ and, to the very end, Arafat employed an aide to translate his Egyptian dialect into Palestinian Arabic for conversing with his West Bank and Gaza subjects.
As a young man, Arafat took no part in the formative experience of the "Palestinian movement", the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, but he would nonetheless claim refugee status throughout his life.
In the mid-1950s, Arafat joined the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, then rose to the head of the Palestine Student Union at the University of Cairo.
In the late 1950s Arafat moved to Kuwait, where he co-founded Fatah (‘Palestine National Liberation Movement’ , an acronym meaning ‘conquest’), the faction that would later gain control over the entire Palestinian movement.
Arafat and Fatah consolidated power through bribery, extortion and murder, and at the Palestinian National Congress in Cairo in February 1969, Arafat was appointed head of the PLO, a position he would never relinquish.
During late 1970, Jordan’s King Hussein cracked down on the Palestinian factions.
During this bloody conflict, known as ‘Black September’, the NEW Palestinians hijacked four Western airliners and blew one up on a Cairo runwa, to both embarrass the Egyptians and Jordanians and, in their words, ‘teach the Americans a lesson for their long-standing support of Israel.’
With the broad publicity this generated, Arafat had hit the world stage.
When King Hussein drove Arafat’s faction out of his Jordanian kingdom (causing thousands of civilian deaths), they relocated in Lebanon.
As in Jordan, Arafat soon triggered a bloody civil war in his previously stable host country. Simultaneously, the PLO launched intermittent attacks on Israeli towns from southern Lebanese positions.
Over the course of his ‘revolutionary’ career, Arafat siphoned off hundreds of millions of dollars of international aid money intended to reach the Palestinian people.
Estimates of the degree of Arafat’s wealth differ, but are all staggering:
In 2003, Forbes magazine listed Arafat in its annual list of the wealthiest ‘Kings, Queens and Despots,’ with a fortune of ‘at least $300 million.’ Israeli and US officials estimate Arafat’s personal holdings between $1-3 billion.
And while the average Palestinian barely subsisted, Arafat’s wife Suha, living comfortably in Paris, received $100,000 each month from PA sources as reported on CBS’ 60 Minutes.
That CBS report also noted that Arafat maintained secret investments in a Ramallah-based Coca Cola plant, a Tunisian cellphone company, and venture capital funds in the U.S. and the Cayman Islands.
An International Monetary Fund report indicated that upwards of 8% ($135 million) of the PA’s annual budget was handed out by Arafat ‘at his sole discretion.
In 1999, Muawiya Al-Masri, a member of the Palestinian Legislative Council, described Arafat’s corruption to a Jordanian newspaper.
For this, he was attacked by a gang of masked men and shot three times.
Al-Masri survived the ordeal and described Arafat’s grip on PA power:
"‘There is no institutional process. There is only one institution the Presidency, which has no law and order and is based on bribing top officials.’"
Yet beyond the terrorism, extortion, embezzlement and intimidation lies Arafat’s most unfortunate ongoing impact:
The inculcation of murderous values in an entire generation of Palestinians, who have been educated under Arafat’s direction to continue the fight of jihad against Israel, rather than compromise to end the decades-long conflict.
How many generations will it take to undo Arafat’s dark legacy?
<<After the Six-Day War in which Israel utterly defeated the coalition of nine Arab states and took legitimate possession of Judea and Samaria, the Arab dwellers in those regions underwent a kind of anthropological miracle and discovered that they were Palestinians - something they did not know the day before.
Of course, these people having a new identity had to build themselves a history, namely, had to steal some others' history, and the only way that the victims of the theft would not complain is if those victims do no longer existed.
Therefore, the Palestinian leaders claimed two contradictory lineages from ancient peoples that inhabited in the Land of Israel: the Canaanites and the Philistines. >>
The Canaanites are historically acknowledged as the first inhabitants of the Land of Israel, before the Hebrews settled there.
Indeed, the correct geographic name of the Land of Israel is Canaan, not "Palestine" (a Greco-Roman invention, as we will see later).
The Northern Canaanites settled along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea from the southeastern side of the Gulf of Iskenderun to the proximities of the Gulf of Hayfa. Their main cities were Tzur, Tzidon, Gebal (Byblos), Arvad, Ugarit, and are better known in history by their Greek name Phoenicians, but they called themselves "Kana'ana" or "Kinachnu".
They did not found any unified kingdom but were organized in self-ruled cities, and were not a warlike people but rather skilful traders, seafarers and builders.
Their language was adopted from their Semitic neighbors, the Arameans, and was closely related to Hebrew (not to Arabic!).
Phoenicians and Israelites did not need interpreters to understand each other.
The Phoenicians settled in or near Lebanon.
The so-called Palestinians who claim this ancestry are not Lebanese (although some of them came from Syrian-occupied Lebanon), therefore they can't be Phoenicians (Northern Canaanites).
Actually, in Lebanon they are "refugees" and are not identified with the local people.
The Southern Canaanites dwelled in the mountain region from the Golan southwards, on both sides of the Yarden and along the Mediterranean coast from the Gulf of Hayfa to Yafo, that is the "Biblical Canaan".
[NOTE: When the first Hebrews arrived in Canaan they shared the land but did not intermarry, as it was forbidden for Abraham's family to marry the Canaanites. Nevertheless, eleven of the twelve sons of Jacob/Israel married Canaanite women (the other son married an Egyptian), and since then, the Tribes of Israel began to mix with the local inhabitants.]
The Southern Canaanites were composed of various tribes of different stocks: besides the proper Canaanites (Phoenicians), there were Amorites, Hittites and Hurrian peoples like the Yevusites, Hivvites and Horites, all of them assimilated into the Aramean-Canaanite context.
They never constituted a unified, organized state but kept within the tribal alliance system.
When the Assyrians overran the Kingdom of Israel, they did not find any Canaanites, as they had all become Israelites by that time.
The same happened when the Babylonians overthrew the Kingdom of Judah.
No, the "Palestinians" can't prove one link to the Canaanites, but we must wonder why those who do claim this lineage don't speak the language of the ancient Canaanites, that is... Hebrew.
LET'S EXAMINE THE PHILISTINE ANCESTRY CLAIM...
It is from the term "Philistines" that the name "Palestinians" has been taken.
ORIGINALLY, Peleshet, from the verb "pelesh", "dividers", "penetrators" or "invaders".
The Philistines were a confederation of non-Semitic peoples coming from Crete, the Aegean Islands and Asia Minor, also known as "Sea Peoples".
The main tribes were Tzekelesh, Shardana, Akhaiusha, Danauna, Tzakara, Masa or Meshuesh, Uashesh, Teresh or Tursha, Keshesh or Karkisha, Lukka and Labu.
The original homeland of the group that ruled the Philistine federation, namely the "Pelesati", was the island of Crete.
When the Minoic civilization collapsed, so also the Minoic culture disappeared from Crete, as invaders from Greece took control of the island.
These ancient Cretans arrived in Southern Canaan and were known as "Peleshtim" by both Hebrews and Canaanites.
They also invaded Egypt and were defeated by Pharaoh Rameses III in the 12th century BCE.
Those 'Sea Peoples' that invaded Egypt were expelled towards other Mediterranean lands and did not evolve into ANY Arab people, but disappeared as distinguishable groups in Roman times.
The remaining Philistines still dwelling in Gaza were subdued by Sargon II of Assyria and, after that time, they disappeared definitively from history.
They were no longer mentioned IN HISTORICAL RECORDS AFTER the return of the Jewish exiles from Babylon.
There is not one single person in the world who may be able to prove Philistine lineage, yet, if Palestinians insist, they have to recognize themselves as invaders , and then they must ask Greece to return them to the Isle of Crete, THEIR HOMELAND.
The Philistines are extinct and claims to alleged links with them are utterly as false as they are historically impossible to establish.
In any case, claiming a Philistine heritage is pointless because it cannot legitimize any land in which they were foreign occupants and not native dwellers.
Philistines were not Arab.
The name "Falastin" that Arabs today use for "Palestine" is not an Arabic name, but adopted and adapted from the Latin Palæstina .
ARABS KNEW THEN AND KNOW NOW THE TRUTH OF WHO ARAFAT REALLY WAS.
HE WAS AN EGYPTIAN AND A DICTATOR WHO STOLE FROM AND KILLED HIS OWN PEOPLE.
SOURCES ON ARAFAT:
[NOTE: this account was written by the editor of Nobel Lectures, Peace 1991-1995, published by World Scientific Publishing Co. ARAFAT ALWAYS HID HIS "BIOGRAPHY" FROM THE PRESS.]
Aburish, Said K. Arafat: From Defender to Dictator. New York & London: Bloomsbury Press, 1998, Critical interpretation of Arafat’s cultural background.
The term “Philistines” provides the source from which the term “Palestinians” is derived. Like the Arabs who gave themselves the concocted name “Palestinian,” the Philistines were alien peoples who entered the land from the Mediterranean isles. That is why they were also known as the Sea People.
The Philistines were non-Semitic peoples who had entered the land from their homes throughout the Aegean Islands in general and from Crete in particular. These ancient Cretans arrived in Southern Canaan and along the Egyptian coastline and were known as “Pelestim (from the Hebrew root for invaders).
The demographics of Palestine before 1948.
<<For a number of reasons, both political and environmental, the Arab population of Palestine had been in a constant state of flux for much of the region’s history. There was of course a small Arab population in Palestine that could trace its roots back for centuries. But overall, the Arab population, which had remained dormant for centuries, began to blossom only after the beginning of Jewish immigration and the subsequent improvements in economic conditions, infrastructure, and agricultural techniques.
The idea of “uninterrupted settlement…rooted in its soil,” is thus inconsistent with history.
It was put forward primarily in an attempt to delegitimize Jewish immigration.
From the period of the Crusades to the beginning of modern times, the population of Palestine remained at a near constant level. This apparent stability is significant, as populations naturally tend to increase over time. It is estimated that there were 205,000 people living in Palestine in the mid 1500s.
By 1800, the population had only grown to 275,000, reflecting about a thousandth of a percent of average growth a year.
[NOTE: ISRAEL WAS NOT A PLACE ARABS WANTED TO BE BACK THEN.]
Many people fled the area as early as the fourteenth century as a result of the Black Plague.
Starting shortly thereafter, many areas became swamp-infested and malarial, especially in the northern valleys.
There is much evidence to suggest that, by the mid-nineteenth century, the region had become nearly uninhabitable.
Around this time, German Templars tried to settle the Kinarot Valley, but were forced to leave due to the prevalence of malaria.
In 1831, Muhammad Ali of Egypt invaded the region to obtain raw materials and a market for his country’s industrializing economy.
As a result of the violence, many fellahin, or farmers, fled Palestine to neighboring regions. Yet these emigres were soon replaced by a new wave of farmers from Egypt seeking to escape their country’s military draft.
According to the French scholar M. Sabry, the Egyptian governor Ibrahim Pasha brought over six thousand people to settle empty stretches of land
According to contemporary surveys, the Arab population declined by 35,000 during the years 1915 to 1919.
While many Arabs may have fled to escape the draft, others were expelled by force. To defend against the British, the Ottomans, still nominally in control, expelled both Jews and Arabs from cities across the coast on the assumption that their nationalistic intentions could lead them to sympathize with the British invaders.
This effort was massive: twenty-eight thousand Arabs were forced out of Gaza alone.
Had the Arab population remained at its pre-WWI growth rate (0.8%) after 1922, one would have expected a population of approximately 785,000 by 1947.
But there were in fact between 1.2 and 1.3 million Arabs in all of Palestine by 1947.
Non-Jewish population growth rates were highest within modern-day sovereign Israel and in the West Bank and Gaza Strip regions.
What could have caused this sudden burst?
Agriculture had been the main source of income of 90% of Muslims in 1931.
With the increase in Jewish immigration during this period, Arab farmers began to pressure the British to stop the Jewish influx, arguing that the land could not sustain any more inhabitants.
The result was the Passfield White Paper of 1930.
Although this document would be repudiated only a year later, it reflects the widespread and strongly-held belief that the land’s resources could not be shared.
One major reason for this improvement was swamp drainage.
The project, largely conceived and carried out by Jewish immigrants with some British help, was enormous in magnitude. It provided dramatic health benefits in addition to large increases in the amount of arable land.>>
The new Jewish landowners, having paid eexorbitant amounts for what was believed by the Arab sellers to be worthless land, began citrus farming, used irrigation and other methods to "make the desert bloom'.
The newly fertile and highly productive lands were once again attractive to Arabs, so they began filing false complaints, 3000 of them, swearing that they were cheated, wanting their land back.
The British government looked into those claims and threw out over 2500 of them. Of the few hundred that remained, Arabs were happy to settle the disputes for a few dollars MORE than had been originally charged and paid.
This sale of lands made the high-up Arab officials furious!
These leaders claimed that the presence of outsiders would destroy the Arab nature of the country, a claim that can still be heard among SO-CALLED Palestinians and pro-Palestinian advocates today.
<<Ironically, however, many of the strongest opponents of Jewish land purchases were also the people who profited most from them.
A brief list of Arab leaders who sold land to Jews includes Fahmi el-Husayni, mayor of Gaza; Ragheb Nashashibi, mayor of Jerusalem and founder of the “National Defense Party”; Mussa el-‘Alami, Government Advocate of the Palestine Government and a member of the Arab Higher Committee; As’ad el-Shuqairi, father of Ahmed Shuqairi, the first chairman of the P.L.O.; and Jamal el-Husayni.
Of course, the Arab leadership attempted to suppress this information, but it was brought to public attention by Lewis French, the first director of the British Mandatory Government’s Department of Development.
The news of the Arab leadership’s hypocrisy eventually led to the collapse of the Arab Executive (the governing Arab body in the Mandate) in the early 1930s.
It would not be until 1936 that another body of political leadership would come to exist, in the form of the Arab Higher Committee. >>
Jews were, temporarily, left to their farming.
The population shift that would occur over the following three years, as a result of the U.N. partition plan and the Arab-Israeli war, would be so momentous that it almost makes this prior data seem irrelevant.
From the very day that the Mandate looked solid, looked like the Jewish People were, indeed, given back a very small portion their ancestral land, Arabs began flocking into that region.
Some were PAID to go into Israel, some went voluntarily.
<<From the beginning, it was Arab intolerance of the Jewish presence that caused the widespread opposition to Israel, an intolerance that resulted in the war of 1948. Jews, of course, had not chosen arbitrarily to immigrate to this area of the world. Moreover, they did so legally and with positive effects. As evidenced by the massive growth in population, the improvement of agriculture, and increased wages, the claim against Jewish return to Palestine was not pragmatic but ideological. The idea of a Jewish State as such was, from the beginning, anathema to the Arabs living there, and they sought to discredit and defeat it by any means possible. It is in this context that the birth of the Arab-Israeli conflict must be considered.
Each side blames the other for the consequences of the war, including some who point to the war as proof of “Zionist aggression.” But even Benny Morris, the historian who argued that the Palestinian refugee problem was caused in part by Israeli military actions, points out that “the [refugee] problem was a direct consequence of the war that the Palestinians—and, in their wake, the surrounding Arab states—had launched.>>
<end Harvard quote>
[SEE ALSO: Steven M. Bray, Jennifer G. Mulle, Anne F. Dodd, Ann E. Pulver, Stephen Wooding, and Stephen T. Warren. "Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 107:37 (September 14, 2010): pages 16222-16227. 471 unrelated Ashkenazim were genotyped. Among the comparative populations were 1705 continental Europeans and 1251 European-Americans. Also used for comparison were 3 Middle Eastern populations: Palestinian Arabs, Druze, and Bedouins. Abstract: ]
AND THE JEWS?
ARE THEY A SEPARATE, DISTINCT RACE?
YES, SAYS THE DNA!
Judaism is inherited down the female line – as are mitochondria. Their DNA shows that today's Jews from the largest group, the eight million Ashkenazim have few grandmothers...MAYBE 4.
"The genetic, cultural and religious traditions of contemporary Jewish people originated in the Middle East over three thousand years ago. Since that time, Jewish communities have migrated from the Middle East into Europe, North Africa and across the world. ...
This study shows that although Jewish people experienced genetic mixing with surrounding populations, they retained a genetic coherence along with a religious one. 'Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations,' says senior study author, Dr. Harry Ostrer...
'More recent studies of Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA have pointed to founder effects of both Middle Eastern and local origin, yet, the issue of how to characterize Jewish people as mere coreligionists or as genetic isolates that may be closely or loosely related remained unresolved. ... Yet the genomes of the Jewish Diaspora groups have distinctive features that are representative of each group's genetic history.' says Dr. Ostrer. 'Our study demonstrated that the studied Jewish populations represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters with genetic threads that weave them together,' added Dr. Gil Atzmon...
The researchers identified distinct Jewish population clusters that each exhibited a shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations and variable degrees of European and North African genetic intermingling. ... The two major groups, Middle Eastern Jews and European Jews, were timed to have diverged from each other approximately 2,500 years ago.
Southern European populations show the greatest proximity to Ashkenazi,
Sephardic and Italian Jews, reflecting the large-scale southern European conversion and admixture known to have occurred over 2,000 years ago during the formation of the European Jewry.
An apparent North African ancestry component was also observed as was present in the Sephardic groups potentially reflecting gene flow from Moorish to Jewish populations in Spain from 711 to 1492. ...
Dr. Ostrer noted, 'The study supports the idea of a Jewish people linked by a shared genetic history.
The DNA has spoken: ...
To sort it out, researchers collected DNA from Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, and Ashkenazi Jews around New York City; Turkish Sephardic Jews in Seattle; Greek Sephardic Jews in Thessaloniki and Athens; and Italian Jews in Rome as part of the Jewish HapMap Project. (All four grandparents of each participant had to have come from the same community.) ... Jewish populations, that is, have retained their genetic coherence just as they have retained their cultural and religious traditions, despite migrations from the Middle East into Europe, North Africa, and beyond over the centuries, says geneticist Harry Ostrer of NYU Langone Medical Center, who led the study.
Each Diaspora group has distinctive genetic features 'representative of each group's genetic history,' he says, but each also 'shares a set of common genetic threads' dating back to their common origin in the Middle East. '
Each of the Jewish populations formed its own distinctive cluster, indicating the shared ancestry and relative genetic isolation of the members of each of those groups.'
The various Jewish groups were more related to each other than to non-Jews
BUT, HERE'S THE "RUB"...
In 1997, Karl Skorecki in Haifa, Michael Hammer in Tucson and several London researchers surprised everyone by finding evidence of the Jewish priestly line of males, the Kohanim.
Half of Ashkenazic men and slightly more than half of Sefardic men who claimed to be Kohanim were found to have a distinctive set of genetic markers on their Y chromosome, making it highly possible that they are descendants of a single male or group of related males who lived between 1180 and 650 B.C.E., about the time of Moses and Aaron.
The Kohen marker is but a fragment of the information gleaned from DNA analysis...
A study published last year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science looked at the Y chromosomes of 1,371 males from seven Jewish population groups and came up with a profile of Jewish genes.
They found 13 major Y-chromosome patterns or signatures, called haplotypes. '
The haplotypes of all but Ethiopian Jews shared a similar pattern,' says Ostrer, a member of the study team led by Hammer and Batsheva Bonne-Tamir of Tel-Aviv University.
'This means we are not descended from one person or 12 tribes but 13 founder males.'
The same 13 haplotypes, by the way, are common among Middle Eastern Arabs including Palestinians and Syrians.
Nicholas Wade. "Y Chromosome Bears Witness to Story of the Jewish Diaspora." The New York Times (May 9, 2000): F4 (col. 1). Excerpts:
"The analysis provides genetic witness that these communities have, to a remarkable extent, retained their biological identity separate from their host populations, evidence of relatively little intermarriage or conversion into Judaism over the centuries....
The results accord with Jewish history and tradition and refute theories like those holding that Jewish communities consist mostly of converts from other faiths, or that they are descended from the Khazars, a medieval Turkish tribe that adopted Judaism....
But present-day Ethiopian Jews lack some of the other lineages found in Jewish communities, and overall are more like non-Jewish Ethiopians than other Jewish populations, at least in terms of their Y chromosome lineage pattern....
Roman Jews have a pattern quite similar to that of Ashkenazis, the Jewish community of Eastern Europe. Dr. Hammer said the finding accorded with the hypothesis that Roman Jews were the ancestors of the Ashkenazis.
Despite the Ashkenazi Jews' long residence in Europe, their Y signature has remained distinct from that of non-Jewish Europeans."
"Based on earlier studies using classical genetic methods, Cavalli-Sforza et al. came to the conclusion 'that Jews have maintained considerable genetic similarity among themselves and with people from the Middle East, with whom they have common origins.'
Evidence for the latter concept was very convincingly made and extended by an international team of scientists [Hammer et al.] in a very recent research article8, widely reported in the press, in which the genetics of different Middle Eastern populations were studied using a completely different method than the classical methods that form the great majority of papers in the Cavalli-Sforza et al book.
The research involved direct DNA analysis of the Y chromosome, which is found only in males and is passed down from father to son. Seven different Jewish groups from communities in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East were compared to various non-Jewish populations from those areas.
The results showed, first of all, that 'Despite their long-term residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level.'
Furthermore, the genetic characteristics of Jews were shown to be distinctly different from (non-Jewish) Europeans, suggesting that very little admixture occurred between Jews and Europeans, even after about 80 generations of Jews in Europe....
In fact, the Palestinians and Syrians were so close to the Jews in genetic characteristics that they 'mapped within the central cluster of Jewish populations.'"
[SEE: Carmelli, D. and Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. The genetic origin of the Jews: A multi-variate approach. Hum. Biol., 51:41-61. 1979.
SEE ALSO: Hammer, M.F. et al. [12 authors]. Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish populations share a common pool of Y-chromosome biallelic haplotypes. Proceedings National Academy Sciences USA.]
Agence France-Presse. "Study confirms Jewish Middle East origins." Sydney Morning Herald, June 11, 2010. Excerpt:
"'We found evidence that Jewish communities originated in the Near East,' said molecular scientist Doron Behar of the Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa, Israel, who led an investigation gathering experts in eight countries.
'Our genetic findings are concordant with historical records.'"
[SEE ALSO: Alla Katsnelson. "Genes link Jewish communities, take 2." Nature: The Great Beyond (June 9, 2010). ] Excerpt:
"...the study showed that all of the Jewish communities share some common genetic features, and for the most part, the Jewish groups are more similar to each other than to the non-Jews in the same regions.
'These two studies are the first pair of genome-wide studies of SNP variations in collections of multiple Jewish populations,' says Noah Rosenberg, a population geneticist at the University of Michigan who was not involved in either study. ...
Because of their large panel of populations, the researchers were able to dive more deeply than ever before into fine scale relationships between different populations. The closest genetic clustering, both among Jewish and non-Jewish groups, is seen in the eastern Mediterranean area known as the Levant, including Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and surrounding regions, the study finds."
<<The Bedouin Arabs call themselves the "sons of Ysmael" because they claim to be direct descendants of Ysmael. The other Arabs are usually referred to as the "sons of Shem."
Tradition says that Arabs come from the line of Abraham and his son Ishmael.
The tribal, Bedouin society of the Arabian Desert is the birthplace of “Arab”.
There are other ethnic Arab groups as well that spread in the land and existed for millennia.
Before modern Arab nationalism which developed in 19th and 20th century, Arab speaking people identified themselves with a particular tribe, a village or a family. >>
Israel became a nation in 1312 B.C.E., two thousand years before the rise of Islam.
The mention of the name “Israel” IS FOUND in a historic Egyptian inscription OF THAT TIME.
THE FIGHTING CONTINUES, THE JEWS MUST BE DESTROYED...
WHY the obsessive attempts to destroy Jewish artifacts on the Temple ?
They claim on the one hand that there never was a Beit HaMikdash (Holy Temple), yet they work hard to destroy evidence of something they claim never existed and fear Jewish archaeological work near the area, refuse examination of the Temple Mount by foreign archeologists from any nation.
WHAT ARE THEY HOPING TO HIDE?
HISTORY ALREADY SHOWED THE TEMPLE WAS THERE LONG BEFORE A MOSQUE AROSE WITHIN THE BORDERS OF ISRAEL, NOR WAS THERE ONE EVER ERECTED IN ANCIENT JUDEA/SAMARIA... ISLAM DID NOT EXIST UNTIL THE COMMON ERA...HAS NOT BEEN AROUND BUT 1300 OR SO YEARS. IT IS A YOUNGER RELIGION THAN CHRISTIANITY!
<<Islam is the youngest of the 5 major religions of the world.>>
Five hundred million Arabs; five million Jews.
The Arabs of today control 24 nations... 99½ percent, 99.5%, of the ENTIRE Middle East land mass, while Israel occupies only 1/2 of 1 percent, O.5%, a tiny speck on the same map.
SO WHY DO ARABS KEEP SCREAMING FOR THE JEWS TO "MOVE OVER AND MAKE ROOM FOR US!"?
WHY DON'T ARABS MAKE ROOM FOR JEWS, MAYBE GIVE BACK JORDAN, THE SINAI PENINSULA?
ARABS WHO HATE JEWS AND ARE STILL ANGERED BY THE OUTCOME OF THE 1967 WAR, KEEP ASKING THAT ISRAELI BORDERS BE ROLLED BACK TO PRE-1967 LINES.
WHY NOT LET ISRAEL GO BACK EVEN FURTHER....TO THE TIME BEFORE ISLAM EXISTED, TO THE TIME BEFORE MOSQUES, TO THE TIME BEFORE MUHAMMAD?
SURELY 3,300 YEARS OF HISTORY WILL NOT LIE TO US...SURELY.
LET US GO BACK TO THE TIME WHEN THE EGYPTIANS WROTE OF THE JEWS...
BEFORE... "The Titus Arch in Rome that celebrates the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD by Titus".
BEFORE... Flavius Josephus, writing in about 110 AD, recorded, in great detail, Jewish history.
BEFORE...Jason of Cyrene (2nd century BCE) WROTE OF THE JEWS.
BEFORE... Philo of Alexandria (c. 20 BCE - 50 CE) MENTIONED THEM.
BEFORE...Assyrian sources speak of a massive deportation of people from Israel and their replacement with settlers from other parts of the empire (c. 722 BCE)
BEFORE...The SEAL OF A JUDEAN KING WAS FOUND, King Ahaz of Judah, who ruled from 732 to 716 BCE, a seal that contains not only the name of the king, but the name of his father, King Yehotam.
BEFORE... The 9th century BCE Assyrian king Shalmaneser III names "Ahab the Israelite" among his enemies at the battle of Qarqar (853 BCE)
BEFORE...The Mesha stele (c. 830 BCE), left by a king of Moab, celebrates his success in throwing off the oppression of the "House of Omri" (i.e., Israel). That stele also mentions the "House of David".
The Mesha stele even bears what is generally thought to be the earliest extra-biblical Semitic reference to the name Yahweh (YHWH), whose temple goods were plundered by Mesha and brought before his own god Kemosh.
BUT IT GOES BACK EVEN FARTHER, EVEN BEFORE...
The name Israel first appeared in the stele of the Egyptian pharaoh Merneptah c. 1209 BCE, "Israel is laid waste and his seed is no more" that ancient inscription reads.
Merneptah was WRONG. THE JEWS SURVIVED!.
BEFORE ALL THESE NATIONS RECOGNIZED AND NAMED ISRAEL, LET'S GO BACK TO THE BORDERS OF THE ORIGINAL CONQUESTS...LET US HAVE THE LANDS THAT THE JEWS FIRST CONQUERED GIVEN BACK TO THEM...THEY WON THEM BY WAR, SAME AS ALL NATIONS OF EARTH DID.
JUST AS THEY WON THE "GOLAN HEIGHTS", THE SINAI PENINSULA, THE WEST BANK, AND COULD HAVE SO EASILY TAKEN BACK ALL OF "JORDAN"...AND PERHAPS EVEN ALL OF EGYPT?
TO HELL WITH 1967, LET'S GO BACK 3000 YEARS!
DNA EVIDENCE PLACES THE JEWS THERE, THE RECORDED HISTORY OF OTHER ANCIENT CULTURES PUTS THEM THERE, SO LET'S GIVE THE ISRAELIS WHAT THEY CONQUERED ALL THOSE THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO...THE WHOLE "SHEBANG"!
OTHER SOURCES NOT CITED ABOVE:
Andrew Forbes and David Henley, People of Palestine Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books, 2012.
“A Survey of Palestine,” prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the Information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, Vol. II p. 714, as cited in Avneri, p. 252.
Kenneth W. Stein, The Land Question in Palestine 1917-1939 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984), p. 4.
William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East, p. 72.
Notes compiled for U.N.S.C.O.P, pp. 12-13 (for data for December 31, 1946)
Benny Morris, “Peace? No chance.” The Guardian (UK). February 21, 2002.
On a final note, in all of the writing and reporting on Israel, there is one undisputed fact that is consistently forgotten and ignored.
That fact is that Israel is the only nation in the Middle East who has ever properly protected sites holy to EACH religion and the rights of all to worship in Jerusalem and all of Israel.
No MODERN Islamic nation can come close to making that claim.