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Tuesday, January 5, 2016

NEW U.S. PULSED-POWER PARTICLE ACCELERATOR: THOR'S HAMMER A RADICALLY DIFFERENT DESIGN

"THOR'S HAMMER"
IMAGE: Sandia National Laboratories technician Eric Breden installs a transmission cable on the silver disk that is the new pulsed-power machine's central powerflow assembly. 
(Photo by Randy Montoya). 

The goal? Thermonuclear ignition and high-yield fusion?

It seems to be a contest between the department of Energy's two big "secret" labs, Sandia and Brookhaven, with a little help from MIT and Russia. 
 
 
BUT WAIT, THERE'S A TINIER VERSION!

TERAHERTZ TECHNOLOGY

"An interdisciplinary team of researchers has built the first prototype of a miniature particle accelerator that uses terahertz radiation instead of radio frequency structures.


A single accelerator module is just 1.5 centimetres long and one millimetre thick.

The terahertz technology holds the promise of miniaturising the entire set-up by at least a factor of 100, as the scientists surrounding DESY's Franz Kärtner from the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) point out.


They are presenting their prototype, that was set up in Kärtner's lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the U.S., in the journal Nature Communications.


The authors see numerous applications for terahertz accelerators, in materials science, medicine and particle physics, as well as in building X-ray lasers. CFEL is a cooperation between DESY, the University of Hamburg and the Max Planck Society. "

[SEE: Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration; Emilio A. Nanni, Wenqian R. Huang, Kyung-Han Hong, Koustuban Ravi, Arya Fallahi, Gustavo Moriena, R. J. Dwayne Miller & Franz X. Kärtner; Nature Communications, 2015;
DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS9486  ]

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2015-10-team-particle-prototype-feasibility-terahertz.html#jCp 

BUT ABOUT THOR'S HAMMER...

Public Release: 

DOE/Sandia National Laboratories

A new Sandia National Laboratories accelerator called Thor is expected to be 40 times more efficient than Sandia's Z machine, the world's largest and most powerful pulsed-power accelerator, in generating pressures to study materials under extreme conditions.

"Thor's magnetic field will reach about one million atmospheres, about the pressures at Earth's core," said David Reisman, lead theoretical physicist of the project.

Though unable to match Z's 5 million atmospheres, the completed Thor will be smaller -- 2,000 rather than 10,000 square feet -- and will be considerably more efficient due to design improvements that use hundreds of small capacitors instead of Z's few large ones.

Remarkable structural transformation

This change resembles the transformation of computer architecture in which a single extremely powerful computer chip was replaced with many relatively simple chips working in unison, or to the evolution from several high-voltage vacuum tubes to computers powered by a much larger number of low-voltage solid-state switches.
A major benefit in efficiency is that while Z's elephant-sized capacitors require large switches to shorten the machine's electrical pulse from a microsecond to 100 nanoseconds, with its attendant greater impact, the small switches that service Thor's capacitors discharge current in a 100-nanosecond pulse immediately, eliminating energy losses inevitable when compressing a long pulse.
The new architecture also allows finer control of the pulse sent to probe materials. 
Toward a more perfect pulse shape

Said Reisman, "Individual cables from pairs of capacitors separate our signals. By combining these signals in any manner we choose, we can tailor very precise pulses of electrical current."

Tailored pulse shapes are needed to avoid shocks that would force materials being investigated to change state.
"We want the material to stay in its solid state as we pass it through increasing pressures," he said. "If we shock the material, it becomes a hot liquid and doesn't give us information."

Another advantage for Thor in such testing is that each capacitor's transit time can be not only controlled to the nanosecond level but isolated from the other capacitors.

"In 30 seconds on a computer, we can determine the shape of the pulse that will produce a desired compression curve, whereas it takes days to determine how to create the ideal pulse shape for a Z experiment," Reisman said.

Furthermore, because Thor can fire so frequently -- less hardware damage per shot requires fewer technicians and enables more rapid rebooting -- researchers will have many more opportunities to test an idea, he said.

But there's more at stake than extra experiments or even new diagnostics.

There's testing the efficiency of a radically different accelerator design.  
Radical shoeboxes

Thor's shoebox-sized units, known as "bricks," contain two capacitors and a switch.

The assembled unit is a fourth-generation descendant of a device jointly developed by Sandia and the Institute of High-Current Electronics in Tomsk, Russia, called a linear transformer driver (LTD).

The original LTD units, also called "bricks," had no cables to separate outputs, but instead were linked together to add voltage as well as current.
 (Because Thor's bricks are isolated from each other, they add current but not voltage.)

Everything depends upon adding bricks. Sandia is building Thor in stages and already has assembled materials. Two intermediate stages are expected in 2016. These will comprise 24 bricks (Thor 24) and 48 bricks (Thor 48). "These are 'first-light' machines that will be used for initial experiments and validation," Reisman said.

Thor 144, when completed, should reach 1 million atmospheres of pressure.
Sandia manager Bill Stygar said more powerful LTD versions of Z ultimately could bring about thermonuclear ignition and even high-yield fusion.

Ignition would be achieved when the fusion target driven by the machine releases more energy in fusion than the electrical energy delivered by the machine to the target. High yield would be achieved when the fusion energy released exceeds the energy initially stored by the machine's capacitors. 

High-yield fusion

A paper published Sept. 9, in Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams, co-authored by Reisman, lead electrical engineer Brian Stoltzfus, Stygar, lead mechanical engineer Kevin Austin and colleagues, outlined Sandia's plan for Thor.

A Nov. 30 paper, led by Stygar in the same journal, discusses the possibility of building next-generation LTD-powered accelerators to achieve ignition and high-yield fusion.

The academic community also is interested in Thor's architecture.

"Part of the motivation for Thor was to develop affordable and compact machines that could be operated at universities," said Reisman. Institutions that have expressed interest include Cornell University, University of California San Diego, Imperial College London and the Carnegie Institution.

Thor's theoretical design was supported by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development office; later engineering details and hardware were supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Science Campaign.
 
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

With main facilities in Albuquerque, N.M., and Livermore, Calif., Sandia has major R&D (research and development) responsibilities in national security, energy and environmental technologies and economic competitiveness."

GO TEAM, RIGHT?
<cough, cough>

BUT WAIT!
THERE'S MORE!
"BEAM-BEAM COMPENSATION SCHEME", A LA BROOKHAVEN

Accelerator physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have successfully implemented an innovative scheme for increasing proton collision rates at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

More proton collisions at this DOE Office of Science User Facility produce more data for scientists to sift through to answer important nuclear physics questions, including the search for the source of proton spin. 
 (see: https://www.bnl.gov/newsroom/news.php?a=25112)    

 "So far we have doubled the peak and average 'luminosity'-measures that are directly related to the collision rates," said Wolfram Fischer, Associate Chair for Accelerators of Brookhaven's Collider-Accelerator Department and lead author on a paper describing the success just published in Physical Review Letters. And, he says, there's potential for further gains by increasing the number protons from the injectors even more.  
Colliding polarized protons  
RHIC is the world's only polarized proton collider, capable of sending beams of protons around its 2.4-mile-circumference racetrack with their internal magnetic axes (also known as spins) aligned in a chosen direction.

Colliding beams of such "spin polarized" protons and manipulating the spin directions gives scientists a way to explore how their internal building blocks, quarks and gluons, contribute to this intrinsic particle property. 

Data at RHIC have revealed that both quarks and gluons make substantial contributions to spin, but still not enough to explain the total spin value.
More data will help resolve this spin mystery by reducing uncertainties and allowing nuclear physicists to tease out other unaccounted for contributions. 

But getting more protons to collide is an ongoing challenge because, as one beam of these positively charged particles passes through the other, the particles' like charges make them want to move away from one another. 

"The strongest disturbance a proton experiences when it travels around the RHIC ring is when it flies through the other proton beam," Fischer said. "The result of the positive charges repelling is that the protons get deflecting kicks every time they fly through the oncoming beam."  
 
Opposite charge produces opposite push 

The size of the repulsive kick depends on where the proton flies through the beam, with protons about halfway from dead center to the outside edge of the beam's cross-section experiencing the largest outward push. Particles closer to the center or the outer edge of the cross-section experience less repulsion.  

Because of the variable shape of this effect-increasing to a peak and then decreasing with distance from the beam's center-it's impossible to correct using magnets. "The magnetic field strength in magnets increases steadily from the center out," Fischer said.

So instead, the scientists turned to using oppositely charged particles to produce a compensating push in the opposite direction.
"We've implemented electron lensing technology to compensate for these head-on beam-beam effects," Fischer said.

Essentially, they use an electron gun to introduce a low-energy electron beam into a short stretch of the RHIC accelerator. Within that stretch, the electrons are guided by a magnetic field that keeps them from being deflected by the more energetic protons.

As the protons pass through the negatively charged electron beam, they experience a kick in the opposite direction from the repulsive positive charge, which nudges the protons back toward the center of the beam. 


"It's not a glass lens like you'd find in a camera," Fischer said, "but we call the technique 'electron lensing' because, like a lens that focuses light, the electron beam changes the trajectory of the protons flying through it."  
 
Riding the optical wave

The scientists also take advantage of certain "optical" properties of RHIC's particle beams to ensure the method's efficacy.
"Ideally you would like to produce these compensating pushes right where the collisions happen, within the STAR and PHENIX detectors," Fischer said. "But then the experiments wouldn't work anymore. So we placed the electron lenses, one on each beam, at a certain distance from the detectors-called the optical distance-where they have an effect at the same point in the 'phase' of the particle beam that's inside the detectors."

Like a wave of light or sound that oscillates up and down in amplitude at a given frequency, the particles that travel around RHIC also oscillate a tiny bit. As long as the nuclear physicists know the frequency of the oscillations and give their electron-lensing kicks at the same point in that oscillation that the particles reach within the detector, the effect will compensate for the proton repulsion the particles experience at that distant location. 

So far, the scientists have doubled the proton-proton collision rates at RHIC. They could potentially get even higher gains by increasing the number of protons injected into the machine.

"The key challenge will be to maintain the high degree of polarization the experiments need to explore the question of proton spin," Fischer said. But he insists there is clear potential for even higher proton-proton luminosity.

Source: DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Ahh, Brookhaven, the name alone is a nightmare-maker, yes?
Well, Sandia also, especially at Livermore <shudder>, but not as much so as Brookhaven.

Established in 1947 on Long Island, Upton, New York, Brookhaven is a multi-program NATIONAL laboratory.
[Shhhhh, lots of "secret" stuff...don't look, don't tell.]  

And, well, these experiments were once said to have been shut down, because.....

November 9, 1999  
UPTON, N.Y. --
In an unexpected finding, officials at Brookhaven National Laboratory said on Monday that they had detected tritium, a radioactive substance, in a monitoring well at levels twice the federal standard for drinking water in a monitoring well. But they said the contamination, found near a building housing a particle accelerator experiment, posed no health threat. 
  Officials at the Long Island laboratory said they believed the contamination in the sample, taken Oct. 14, came from an experiment in which tritium was produced in water used to cool superconducting magnets. A Nov. 2 sample showed the tritium level had decreased, but it was still higher than the federal standard. 
  Brookhaven's 5,300 acres were designated a federal Superfund site in 1989 because of radioactive and chemical contaminants in soil and ground water. The monitoring well is near the center of the site, about 1.8 miles from its southern border. Thomas R. Sheridan, the laboratory's deputy director for operations, said the accelerator experiment, which began in 1997, has been shut down.
A technical team has been searching for a leak in a containment system intended to prevent such discharges, he said.


Brookhaven's critics said on Monday that the new finding showed that the lab, which is owned by the United States Energy Department, was more widely contaminated than the government has said.       


"We are still at the beginning of an environmental nightmare," said William N. Smith, the executive director of Fish Unlimited of Shelter Island. "As time goes by, more and more contamination will be found, and the lab is going to continue to minimize it."


[ A nice pic of the grounds at Brookhaven won't upload, but can be seen at
http://www.hiddenmasterpieces.com/locations/brookhaven-national-laboratory/]



REMEMBER THE "PHILADELPHIA EXPERIMENT"?

DID YOU EVER HEAR OF PROJECT PHOENIX, A GOVERNMENT WEATHER CONTROL EXPERIMENT, OR THE MONTAUK PROJECT?


BROOKHAVEN SAW THEM ALL.  


When Congress disbanded the Phoenix Project, the group at Brookhaven had already built an entire kingdom around the project.

They had Reichian and stealth technologies which could definitely affect the mind of man.


The Brookhaven group went to bat for their projects, approached the military and informed them about this fantastic new piece of technology they were working on.

They told them about a device that could make the enemy surrender without a battle simply by throwing a switch.
Of course, the military was very interested.
 
This was every war expert’s dream. Imagine, a device that makes the enemy give up before the battle starts.

The military became enthusiastic and were very ready to cooperate.

They were told that they didn’t need to get involved in the financing because that was covered by the group at Brookhaven National labs. But, the Brookhaven people needed a place where proper experimentation could be done in seclusion. They needed certain equipment and personnel from the military.
They gave the military a list of all technology required.

SAGE RADAR
Of particular import on the technology list was the old Sage Radar

   For this, they required a huge radiosonde that would operate around 425 to 450 Megahertz.

 

From earlier research, it was known that this was one of the “window frequencies” for getting into the human consciousness. A very high powered radar device was needed that ran at 425 to 450 MHz.


The military had just what they were looking for: a mothballed Air Force base at Montauk Point that housed an obsolete
Sage Radar system that fit the bill. This system already had the RF sections and the modulator that would be required to build a huge radiosonde.


The Sage Radar at Montauk was originally part of the early warning defense system used during the ‘50’s and ‘60’s.

Today, satellites and over-the-horizon radar make this technology obsolete for defense purposes.

 

It certainly raises an important question, even if one doesn’t believe this story.

 

Why was an old antiquated defense system turned on and utilized for a period of over ten years?


The name for this project was known as “Phoenix II” by the officials concerned.

 

It has since been colloquially named by many involved as the Montauk Project.

In late 1970 and 1971, the Montauk Air Force Base, 0773rd Radar Battalion, was actively being reestablished.

They had to establish a staff, get the equipment working and set up the whole research facility.

This took about a year, and by late ‘71, the Montauk Project was underway.


One U.S. Senator investigated why and how two derelict, decommissioned Air Force bases were populated anew with AF personnel and seemed to be running sans federal funding of any kind. 

 "
In addition to the known military bases (U.S. Army) Camp Hero and Montauk Air Force Station, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers plans and records establish conclusive proof of the existence of at least four levels of subterranean facilities beneath Camp Hero, and according to informed sources up to three additional levels have been added as recently as the early 1990s.

Montauk is actually geologically distinct from the rest of Long Island and is the top of an undersea mountain, so there is plenty of bedrock to go down into.

Camp Hero was a U.S. Army installation established prior to WW2, and Montauk Air Force Station was established within its perimeter as the Army phased out of the location in the 1950s.

The Air Force Station was officially active only until 1969, and federal records do show that no legitimate source of funding existed past that time to keep the base in operation as it's SAGE radar system had by then become obsolete, yet recovered Air Force documents and numerous witnesses verify indisputably that the Air Force Station was still active long after that."

WHAT HAPPENED FROM THAT POINT TO TODAY MAY NEVER BE KNOWN ENTIRELY.

EVERY GOVERNMENT NEEDS SECRETS IN TODAY'S WORLD. BUT IT MAKES ONE UNEASY, DOESN'T IT, TO KNOW EXPERIMENTS WERE DONE SND ARE STILL BEING DONE TO BEND A HUMAN MIND AND A HUMAN WILL, BASICALLY, AT THE PUSH OF A "BUTTON". 

TO SEE WHAT'S GOING ON TODAY IN THE FIELD OF MIND CONTROL... ONE CAN ONLY WISH WE KNEW MORE, RIGHT?


THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER, STILL THE KING.

Large Hadron Collider, the one Stephen Hawking says will obliterate Earth, is up and running full-tilt and then some.  

NO ONE KNOWS WHAT THE HADRON WILL DO, CAN DO.

WILL IT CREATE A BLACK HOLE, WARP TIME OR SPACE, CREATE A NEW DIMENSION, OPEN HELL, UNSCREW NAVELS SO ALL OUR BUTTS FALL OFF?

THEY DON'T  KNOW, THEY'RE JUST A BUNCH OF MAD SCIENTISTS WITH A GREAT BIG TOY.

 

How enormous is the Hadron?
Look at the men standing in front of it off to the right a bit.
What they're standing in front of isn't by any means the entire 'machine'. 


________________




NOTE: The old newspaper and really old website quotes were NOT in "all-caps" when I copied them, but looking at the preview for this blog, I see they show up in all-caps. Deal with it, I hope, as I am far too disgusted with many failed edits right now to give a rat's behind about correcting anything.

Thanks for reading, seriously.

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